Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic,
progressive, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system
affecting more than 1.5 million people in the United States or
approximately 1 in 100 people over age 60. Clinically, the disease
is characterized by a decrease in spontaneous movements, difficulty
in walking, postural instability, rigidity, and tremor, as well as
many other non-movement related symptoms. Parkinson's disease
results from degeneration of neurons in a region of the brain called
the substantia nigra, resulting in decreased availability of the
The English doctor James Parkinson first described Parkinson's disease in 1817, and building from his initial insights, we now know Parkinson's as a “disorder of the central nervous system resulting from degradation and cell death of substantia nigra cells. These cells produce dopamine, a chemical called a Neurotransmitter responsible for carrying nerve signals within the brain for coordination of movement. Loss of dopamine causes neurons to function abnormally, impairing body movement. Parkinson's is classified as a movement disorder, other diseases in this class include essential tremor, dystonia, torticollis and Tourette's syndrome.
The average age of onset is about 63, the disease can occur in younger people; there are some young folks diagnosed in their teens. This disease occurs with similar frequency in both men and women, and occurs in people of all ethnic background and race. There is No definitive test or biomarker for Parkinson's. Usually diagnosed by “ruling things out.” The rate of misdiagnosis can be relatively high, especially for young-onset cases. There are approximately over six million people worldwide who have Parkinson's.
Tremor – usually a resting tremor, often in the hands, arms, legs, torso or lips/face. The tremor is relatively slow, about 4-6 cycles per second and often show a “pill-rolling” movement in the hands and fingers.
Rigidity – muscular stiffness and tightness, often displaying a “start and stop” jerky motion called “cogwheel rigidity” when a limb is manually moved.
Akinesia or bradykinesia – lack of movement or extreme slowness in movement.
Postural instability – limping, shuffling gait or balance problems, often resulting in falls. Lack of facial expression is also a common characteristic resulting from the four cardinal symptoms.
These symptoms can have a major impact on
people with PD who have cognitive impairment, ranging from mild
memory difficulties to dementia and mood disorders – such as
depression and anxiety, and sleep difficulties, loss of sense of
smell, constipation, speech and swallowing problems, drooling and
low blood pressure when standing. Each case tends to be
Parkinson's disease is caused by the progressive impairment or deterioration of neurons (nerve cells) in an area of the brain known as the substantia nigra. When functioning normally, these neurons produce a vital brain chemical known as dopamine.
Research points to a combination of genetic and environmental factors but some of the research is still unknown. Scientists currently believe that, in the majority of the cases, genetic and environmental factors interact to cause PD. Research is ongoing aggressively every day to determine the true cause. Hopefully, like other diseases, we will find through genetic testing and other research sources to find a “link” and help prevent the aggressiveness of this disease.
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